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Carbohydrate Revolution: new findings for maximum sports performance

Carbohydrate Nutrition And Sports Performance

Brand new, evidence-based research every athlete should know

Take advantage of our special offer now and save 42% today

Dear Athlete,

If there’s one nutrient that has truly revolutionised sports nutrition in the last 30 years, it’s carbohydrate.

Because study after study since the 1980s has proved beyond doubt that ample carbohydrate is vital for sportsmen and women who take their performance seriously. Today, few athletes are unaware of the importance of this key dietary nutrient, and carbohydrate nutrition is part and parcel of most athletes’ training plans.

What’s less well known, however, is that research into carbohydrate and sport performance has been continuing apace – with some exciting recent breakthroughs in our understanding of how to optimise carbohydrate nutrition for peak performance.

Sports scientists have discovered that the type of carbohydrate you consume, when and how you consume it, and what you combine it with, can all be manipulated to further boost performance.

But what’s even more exciting is that these extra sports performance gains are not merely incremental – they can be very significant indeed.

That why my new Peak Performance special report, Carbohydrate Revolution: new findings for maximum sports performance, presents the very latest research on carbohydrate and performance – information that is redefining how athletes should use carbohydrate nutrition to boost performance and accelerate recovery - and it's available immediately in PDF format.

It’s no exaggeration to say that some of these findings are truly revolutionary, and if reaching your true sporting potential is important to you, they cannot be ignored.

Order your copy today and you’ll discover:

  • Which foods accelerate and maximise glycogen resynthesis and recovery after training? (p. 16)
  • What kinds of pre-exercise meals help endurance athletes by reducing blood lactate? (p. 19)
  • Before longer, low intensity events should you consume low-GI or high-GI carbohydrate foods? (p. 21)
  • What’s the impact on your nutrition strategy of consuming fat with your carbohydrate meal? (p. 21)
  • What’s the best half-time nutritional strategy for ensuring your players have a successful second-half game? P. 30-31)
  • What carbohydrate strategies should endurance athletes follow to build and maintain their muscle mass? (p. 37-38)
  • What impact does carbohydrate-protein consumption during recovery from exercise have on subsequent performance? (p. 40)
  • How long is the post-exercise ‘recovery window’ in actual fact? (p. 41)
  • If a primary goal of an exercise session is weight management, how should you adjust your carbohydrate nutritional strategy? (pp. 41-42)
  • How do the different types of carbohydrate impact on sports performance? (pp. 46-48)
  • What evidence is there that adding protein to energy drinks is a good idea? (pp. 55-57)
  • What is the link between carbohydrate nutrition and overtraining? (p. 70-73)
  • How does the mouth-brain connection work to reduce the body’s levels of ‘central fatigue’ during exercise? (89-90)
  • During what type of exercise does mouth rinsing work best? (pp. 91-92)
  • How does low-glycogen training work in practice? (pp. 96-97)
  • What is the best single thing you can do to maximise recovery from exercise? (p. 75)

In short, all the information you need to harness the power of carbohydrate nutrition to boost your sports performance – before, during and after competition.

And, you can be sure, there are no ‘locker room theories’ here! Just practical, proven tips and techniques for peak performance.

So if you’re really serious about achieving your maximum sporting potential, maybe it’s time to take advantage of the latest scientific research into carbohydrate nutrition for athletes – and steal a march on your competitors…

Order your PDF copy of Carbohydrate Revolution: new findings for maximum sports performance TODAY, at our special, 42%-discount price.

So I urge you to order your copy TODAY.

Yours sincerely

Jonathan Pye
Publisher: Peak Performance

Click here to go to our special, 42% discount offer. Or read on to learn more about Carbohydrate Revolution: new findings for maximum sports performance

The science of carbohydrates:
how to make the Glycaemic Index work for you

In recent years, the ‘glycaemic index’ – the rate of carbohydrate energy release – has become an important consideration for athletes seeking to consume the ‘right’ type of carbohydrate for a particular mode of training or recovery.

But why is this index important and how can you use it to plan your carbohydrate intake? New research has thrown up some interesting findings – and we report these exclusively in Carbohydrate Revolution: new findings for maximum sports performance.

We know that glucose is the body’s premium grade fuel and almost all of it is derived from dietary carbohydrate. But, although all carbohydrates supply glucose to the body, the rate at which they are digested and release that glucose into the bloodstream, where it can be absorbed, varies considerably.

For example, the carbohydrate in oatmeal consists of glucose building blocks chemically bound together in long chains to form starch; and the glucose can’t be released into the bloodstream until digestion breaks the chemical bonds in the starch chains to release the individual glucose building blocks, all of which takes time. This process is also slowed down considerably by the presence of gummy fibres, which tend to trap the starch in a gel-like matrix, further delaying the release of glucose. The net result is that the release of glucose into the blood following an oat-based meal is slow, gentle and prolonged.

Now contrast this with the same amount of carbohydrate consumed in the form of a drink sweetened with glucose syrup. Most of the carbohydrate in glucose syrup comes from free, unbound glucose building blocks, so it can pass straight from the intestine into the bloodstream, without digestion, in a rapid sudden surge.

Since glucose is such an important molecule in energy metabolism, it would be surprising if our bodies didn’t have precise mechanisms for controlling its flow around the body, as indeed they do. The brain runs almost exclusively on glucose, which it gets from the blood as the end result of breaking down dietary carbohydrate.

However, the brain is extremely sensitive to the concentration of glucose in the blood (often referred to as ‘blood sugar’); even a mild shortfall can produce such symptoms as weakness, dizziness, fatigue, poor concentration and confusion, while large excesses (as you get with uncontrolled diabetes) can lead to coma and even death.

Blood glucose levels are controlled by hormones, which stimulate hunger pangs and the release of glucose from liver stores when blood glucose drops (eg when food hasn’t been eaten for a few hours) and which promote the uptake of glucose into the tissues, such as muscle, when blood glucose levels rise too high (as after a meal containing quick releasing carbohydrates).

After several hours without food, blood glucose levels tend to drift downwards, and when the level drops below the lower limit the hormone glucagon stimulates the conversion of liver glycogen back to glucose and, if liver glycogen stores are low, also provides a route for the production of glucose from fragments of other molecules, such as lactate and amino acids.

If blood glucose levels are so carefully controlled, why does the rate of glucose release from dietary carbohydrates matter? The reason is that each time your body acts to bring blood glucose back to within its optimum range, a number of physiological consequences follow.

And it’s these consequences that have such important ramifications for athletes seeking to optimise their sports performance – before, during and after competition. So we discuss them at length in the opening sections of Carbohydrate Revolution: new findings for maximum sports performance.

It's essential information for any athlete and coach wanting to target peak performance.

First we explain the workings for the Glycaemic Index, whereby carbs are ranked on a scale from 0 to 100 according to the extent to which they raise blood sugar levels. Foods with a high GI are those which are rapidly digested and absorbed and result in marked fluctuations in blood sugar levels, while low GI foods are digested and absorbed slowly, producing gradual rises in blood sugar and insulin levels.

NB: To assist you in planning your diet for sports competition, the section includes a handy table listing almost 80 of the most common foodstuffs, and their GI rating.

Briefly, the four criteria determining a food’s GI are as follows:

  • The type of sugar present – Fructose (the main sugar in fruit) has to be converted to glucose in the liver before it can appear in the blood, thereby reducing the rate at which blood glucose rises and attracting a relatively low GI rating. Sucrose (table sugar) consists of one unit of glucose and one of fructose bonded together; this bond has to be broken before free glucose is released and then fructose has to be converted to glucose. This explains why the GI of table sugar is much lower than that of pure glucose;
  • Amount and type of fibre present – Fibre delays breakdown of carbohydrate in a number of ways. Sometimes it acts as a physical barrier, slowing down the digestive process of breaking down carbohydrate; this is why whole apples have a lower GI than apple juice. Sometimes, as with porridge, gummy fibres bind the carbohydrate into a gel-like structure, slowing down the rate of digestion;
  • Carbohydrate microstructure – The structure of the food can also play a role. For example, with pasta the physical entrapment of starch granules in a sponge-like network of protein molecules in the pasta dough slows digestion, leading to a low GI rating;
  • Amount of fat present – Fat in foods tends to slow the rate of stomach emptying and therefore the rate at which foods are digested.

The crucial point is this:

The glycaemic index and load of foods have important implications for training and recovery. The early research focused largely on the role of high GI carbohydrates and post-exercise recovery, and it soon became apparent that high GI foods accelerate and maximise glycogen resynthesis and recovery after training.

One of the landmark studies looked at cyclists who undertook two exercise trials to deplete muscle glycogen and then consumed either high GI or low GI carbs.

We report the study in detail – including its exciting conclusions – on pp 17-18 of Carbohydrate Revolution: new findings for maximum sports performance

However, sports scientists have also turned their attention to the impact of GI on sports performance when consumed before training. Again, the findings have truly revolutionary implications for athletes and coaches looking to optimise sports performance.

You’ll learn the answers to the following key questions:

  • What’s the best post-training dietary strategy for maximising glycogen repletion?
  • Do higher GI pre-race snacks and meals really adversely affect exercise performance during shorter events?
  • Which carbs are best consumed before longer, lower intensity events (two hours-plus) – lower or higher GI foods?
  • If you are susceptible to blood sugar swings (ie you often experience an energy dip 30-60 minutes after eating a carbohydrate-rich meal/snack), what’s the best pre-training dietary strategy for you, regardless of the duration/intensity of your event?
  • If weight control is a priority, how should you alter your dietary patterns, and why?
  • Away from training, which carbs should you emphasize in your diet, and why?

It’s essential information for anyone seeking to harness the power of carbohydrate nutrition to boost their sports performance – before, during and after competition.

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Nutrition at Half-time:
what’s the best refuelling strategy to ensure second half success?

The traditional approach to half-time nutrition usually involves a cup of tea and a slice of orange, and like many nutritional practices that have stood the test of time, this almost certainly has some merit. Similarly, other foods such as high-carbohydrate cakes, confectionery and even jelly-babies have been advocated because they contain useful energy. Some scientific papers have even recommended snacks like pretzels because they contain high levels of sodium.

However, these kinds of products may also contain other ingredients that are not entirely beneficial for sports performance.

For instance, it may not be possible to measure the performance detriments of hydrogenated vegetable oils or trans-fats in a single game but their negative effects on health are well documented, which is why they’re banned in several countries. Similarly, colourings and other additives are often contained in these kinds of products, which have at least been associated with disruptive behaviour and poor concentration in school children, if not some of the crazy on- and off-ball fouls often seen on TV!

So what are the main factors to consider when planning nutrition in the half-time interval?

In the next section of Carbohydrate Revolution: new findings for maximum sports performance, we examine the relationship between half-time carbohydrate nutrition and the demands of the sport and players’ positions in that sport. Because there are significant differences in the physical demands of team sports like soccer, American football and rugby, with soccer being more physically demanding in terms of distance covered per minute than rugby, for instance. The energy cost of competing in a match is much higher than an even-paced run of the same distance, as there are numerous changes of pace with many periods of intense activity, which is typically associated with heavy demands on carbohydrate energy supply.

Outcomes in team sports are highly influenced by skill, so it is also important to consider factors that may influence skill and concentration when considering strategies to optimise performance. Often these factors go hand in hand with carbohydrate depletion, associated with reduced exercise capacity and poor concentration – effects that may be compounded by dehydration.

Both dehydration and muscle glycogen depletion have been associated with injury and accidents, so efforts to prevent these affecting performances could have repercussions well beyond the immediate match.

So the discussion includes an assessment of the importance of replacing sufficient, but not excessive fluid and carbohydrate is discussed, and strategies for the optimum replacement of carbohydrate and electrolytes are outlined.

The discussion ends with a handy list of nutritional do’s and don’ts – nine key points that every coach, team manager and player should take note of… before their next match day!

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Sports Drinks and Performance (1):
how to optimise muscle mass in endurance athletes

Endurance athletes face an interesting paradox when it comes to muscle mass.

Bigger, stronger muscles generate more forceful contractions, resulting in higher power and greater speed. However, the weight of bulky muscles imposes greater demands on our limited energy stores, especially in weight-bearing sports. But the maintenance of adequate sport-specific muscle mass is critical for optimal performance in endurance athletes.

Why? For these three key reasons:

  • Higher peak power output – Some endurance sports, such as marathon running, are performed at relatively constant, moderate intensities. As a result, peak power is of secondary importance in these events. However, shorter high-intensity bursts are often needed to power over hills, successfully execute breakaways and win sprints. If you have higher peak power, you will be more successful in these endeavours.
  • Lower relative muscular effort – Every sport movement (ie a running stride at a certain speed) produces a given amount of force on your muscles. By increasing muscular strength, this same force becomes a lower percentage of your maximum effort, prolonging your muscular endurance. This effect is largest in individuals who are the weakest. For example, strength training alone, without any cardiovascular training, can increase the tread mill endurance of the elderly.
  • Reduced injury risk– Stronger muscles are more capable of withstanding the potentially injury-producing forces that inevitably occur in sport. It iswidely believed that increasing muscular strength can reduce the risk for sport-related injuries.

So in the next section of Carbohydrate Revolution: new findings for maximum sports performance we tackle the key question: how much muscle does an endurance athlete need? We examine the full range of muscularity, from pure mesomorphs such as body builders through to ectomorphs like marathon runners.

Then we examine the role of post-exercise carbohydrate and protein for maintaining muscle mass in endurance athletes, minimizing muscle damage in training and competition. Along the way we identify and discuss a number of key nutritional factors, such as the timing of protein-carbohydrate ingestion, and the role of supplements such as creatine, in competitive peak performance and maximizing recovery from intensive training and competition.

It’s cutting edge nutritional science for athletes, sports nutritionists and coaches alike!

Because it seems that recent research into carbohydrate absorption and utilisation could herald a new breed of carbohydrate drink, which promises genuinely enhanced endurance performance.

We already know that endurance training coupled with the right carbohydrate loading strategy can maximize glycogen concentrations, which can extend the duration of exercise by up to 20% before fatigue sets in. Studies have shown that the onset of fatigue coincides closely with the depletion of glycogen in exercising muscles.

However, valuable as these glycogen stores are, and even though some extra carbohydrate (in the form of circulating blood glucose) can be made available to working muscles courtesy of glycogen stored in the liver, they are often insufficient to supply the energy needs during longer events.

For example, a trained marathon runner can oxidise carbohydrate at around 200-250g per hour at racing pace; even if he or she begins the race with fully loaded stores, muscle glycogen stores would become depleted long before the end of the race. Premature depletion can be an even bigger problem in longer events such as triathlon or endurance cycling and can even be a problem for athletes whose events last 90 minutes or less and who have not been able to fully load glycogen stores beforehand.

Given that stores of precious muscle glycogen are limited, can the ingestion of carbohydrate drinks during exercise help offset the effects of glycogen depletion by providing working muscles with another source of glucose?

Back in the early 1980s, the prevailing consensus was that it made little positive contribution. This was because of the concern that carbohydrate drinks could impair fluid uptake, which might increase the risk of dehydration. It was also mistakenly believed that ingested carbohydrate in such drinks actually contributed little to energy production in the working muscles.

Now we know differently – and that this ingested carbohydrate becomes the predominant source of carbohydrate energy late in a bout of prolonged exercise, and that it can delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged cycling and running as well as improving the power output that can be maintained. These research findings above have helped to shape the formulation of most of today’s popular carbohydrate drinks. Most of these supply energy in the form of glucose or glucose polymers at a concentration of around 6%, to be consumed at the rate of around 1,000mls per hour, so that around 60g per hour of carbohydrate is ingested.

Higher concentrations or volumes than this are not recommended because not only does gastric distress become a problem, but also the extra carbohydrate ingested is simply not absorbed or utilised. But as we’ve already mentioned, 60g per hour actually amounts to around 250kcals per hour, which provides only a modest replenishment of energy compared to that being expended during training or competition. Elite endurance athletes can burn over 1,200kcals per hour, of which perhaps 1,000kcals or more will be derived from carbohydrate, leaving a shortfall of at least 750kcals per hour.

So one of the recent goals of sports nutrition has been to see whether it’s possible to increase the rate of carbohydrate replenishment and a series of studies carried out by scientists at the University of Birmingham in the UK indicates that this may indeed be possible.

In Carbohydrate Revolution: new findings for maximum sports performance we discuss the findings of this research – and its profound implications for athletes, sports nutritionists and coaches.

You’ll find out which kinds of sports drink mixes work best: sucrose, fructose or maltose.

We also share with you the nutritional key to getting the best out of your sports drink – whichever one you use. Because a successful nutritional strategy goes far beyond what athletes carry in their drinks bottles…

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Sports Drinks and Performance (2):
should you really be adding Protein to your bottle?

Sports drink manufacturers are now adding protein to their products, with claims of enhanced performance and recovery for endurance athletes.

But do these claims stand up to scientific scrutiny?

Carbohydrate Revolution: new findings for maximum sports performance tackles this important nutritional question, and assesses recent sports science research into protein’s performance-enhancing potential.

Numerous studies have shown that you can improve your endurance performance by consuming sports beverages during exercise, especially in prolonged activities (ie more than two hours) at race-intensity. Most guidelines recommend consuming sports beverages with 4-8% carbohydrate at regular intervals during exercise and under laboratory conditions, 600-1400ml of fluid and 30-60+ grams of carbohydrate per hour appear to maximise the performance benefits.

We know too that sports drinks also promote recovery from heavy exercise, in particular by improving the rates of carbohydrate replenishment in the muscles following heavy training.

But protein? What can this substance possibly add to the mix? The potential advantages of carbohydrate-protein sports drinks have centred on two primary claims:

  • Enhanced endurance performance
  • Better recovery following training

Compared to the extensive research on carbohydrate beverages, there are relatively few studies examining the effects of adding protein to sports beverages. However, there is growing evidence that protein may be a worthwhile ingredient in the carbohydrate drinks of endurance athletes.

In Carbohydrate & Performance: new findings for maximum sports performance we report on a recent study from the University of Texas which examined cycling performance during three hours of varied-intensity cycling, intended to simulate competitive cycling conditions.

The discussion focuses on how and why protein may extend ‘time to exhaustion’ in endurance athletes – and how this marker may differ from ‘endurance performance’.

The research findings have fundamental implications for our understanding of central fatigue, muscle damage and post-exercise recovery.

Our findings include six key points for understanding carbohydrate-protein ingestion during endurance exercise. Valuable food for thought for athletes, sports nutritionists and coaches alike.

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Sports Drinks and Performance (3):
can ‘carbohydrate rinsing’ really raise your game?

Everyone knows that carbohydrate drinks can enhance performance.

But new research suggests that actually swallowing your favourite sports drink might not be necessary. Bizarre as it sounds, you can rinse your mouth, spit the drink out on the ground and still be faster!

What is the evidence for this so-called carbohydrate rinsing approach to performance enhancement in short endurance events? We explain all in the next section of Carbohydrate & Performance: new findings for maximum sports performance .

We share with you the results of recent sports science research at the University of Birmingham into carbohydrate feeding during shorter duration exercise of high-intensity with cyclists. The research highlights the workings of a mouth-brain connection, and its impact on sports performance.

The section ends with a six-point guide for athletes and their coaches as to how best to put ‘carbohydrate rinsing’ theory into practice.

This could be the information you need to give you that crucial competitive edge during your next competition…

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You are what you eat:
nutritional strategies to prevent over-training and accelerate recovery

Where should we draw the line between appropriate ‘heavy training’ and overtraining? And how can carbohydrate nutrition prevent overtraining and accelerate recovery?

In Carbohydrate & Performance: new findings for maximum sports performance we explain these two core training concepts – and show how they are intimately linked.

In simple terms, overtraining is the result of intense training stimuli (and other stressors) combined with inadequate recovery. If appropriate recovery is not provided during hard training, you experience a downward spiral in which continued heavy training creates diminishing returns, and performance levels continue to get worse.

However, determining precisely when the ‘overtraining line’ is crossed is very difficult. This is because the symptoms of overtraining are highly individualised and varied – a laundry list of physical, psychological, immunological and biochemical symptoms.

A consistent end result of overtraining is the impairment of physical performance. When you are overtrained, you can expect to see elevated perceptions of exertion/fatigue during exercise, decreased movement economy, slower reaction time and impaired performance times. To make things worse, overtraining status is usually only diagnosed with the benefit of hindsight. In other words, by the time you know you are overtrained, it is too late to handle it effectively!

Thanks to recent sports science research, we now know that the overtraining process falls into three distinct stages:

1) Functional overreaching is the normal process of fatigue that occurs with sustained periods of heavy training. Although these periods of hard training cause short-term impairments in performance, this effect is reversed with a relatively short pre-planned recovery period. For example, a 1-week block of hard training may cause moderate levels of fatigue, impairing your peak performance for a few days. However, when you balance this hard training period with a period of adequate recovery, you can quickly return to a level matching and ultimately exceeding your initial level of performance.

2) Non-functional overreaching is a more severe level of fatigue reached when your performance and energy are not restored after a planned short-term recovery period. This often happens if you work too hard during your recovery days, if you underestimate the impact of the non-training stresses in your life, or if you simply train too long and hard before a recovery period. As a result, you may still feel fatigued following your planned recovery period. This is where flexibility in your training programme becomes very important. If coaches recognise the continued fatigue of an athlete, they can delay the next heavy training phase or competition. This is often enough to reverse the fatigue and restore performance levels.

3) However, if coaches and athletes ignore fatigue in the non- functional overreaching stage, further heavy training simply results in deeper levels of fatigue. This can become a vicious cycle in which athletes continue heavy training in an attempt to reverse their declining performance, only to exacerbate the problem by further impairing their recovery. True overtraining syndrome is reached only in the most severe cases, and can be quite debilitating. Symptoms of overtraining syndrome overlap with chronic fatigue syndrome and clinical depression, and can only be reversed with several weeks or months of recovery.

In the next section of Carbohydrate & Performance: new findings for maximum sports performance we report on recent sports science research that explains the link between overtraining and diet. The new research focuses on the importance of carbohydrate and protein in reducing therisk of overtraining – specifically the consumption of a mix of carbohydrate and protein following heavy endurance training.

Our discussion ranged across such core issues as the possibility of improved protein synthesis, whether a carbohydrate-protein mix aids muscle recovery, and what possible impact a carbohydrate-protein mix might have on subsequent performance.

It is pretty radical stuff!

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Low-Glycogen Training:
could this be the key to your competitive success?

In recent years, a novel nutritional regime of carbohydrate feeding and training that seems to turn conventional thinking on its head has emerged. Since then, this ‘train low, race high’ approach has steadily been gaining currency. Carbohydrate Revolution: new findings for maximum sports performance looks at the very latest research in this area and how it translates into training recommendations for athletes.

When it was first proposed as a useful nutritional approach to training, the ‘train low, race high’ theory ruffled plenty of feathers because it stood conventional wisdom about carbohydrate feeding on its head.

To briefly recap, train low, race high is a theory born out of genetic evolution of the human race, and which suggests that training when muscle carbohydrate stores are low might actually be advantageous for performance.

The reasoning behind the theory goes something like this: our gene selection in the Late Palaeolithic era (when our ancestors roamed the plains as hunter-gatherers) would have been strongly influenced by the need to ensure survival during periods of famine, with certain genes evolving to regulate efficient intake and utilisation of fuel stores – so-called ‘thrifty genes’.

These genes would have enabled our forebears to utilise energy more efficiently, enabling them to forage for food and escape predators even when enduring famine conditions. As hunter-gatherers, without agriculture, they wouldn’t have had access to abundant supplies of ‘carbohydrate-dense’ crops and cereals but in order to survive, physical endurance and the occasional high-intensity burst of energy would still have been needed.

What’s fascinating is that there’s convincing evidence that our genetic makeup has remained essentially unchanged over the past 10,000 years and certainly not changed in the past 40-100 years(1) , which almost certainly has profound implications for the 21st century athlete. In recent years, a number of ‘exercise genes’ involved in the adaptation to exercise and training have been identified, and some it seems are also affected by the biochemical environment in the muscle – eg how much muscle glycogen is present or circulating levels of hormones and other signaling molecules released when exercise is performed.

The obvious question, then, is this: given that these genes have evolved to help us maximise our adaptation to and physical capacity in a low-carbohydrate environment, is the almost universally recommended high-carbohydrate diet for athletes disadvantageous in any way?

Or to put it another way, could vigorous activity in a carbohydrate-depleted state (as would have been the norm for our ancestors) possibly produce better training adaptations in the modern athlete? A number of scientists are increasingly confident that (thanks to our thrifty genes), lower levels of muscle glycogen during training might stimulate certain metabolic pathways in the body, resulting in better muscular adaptation to training.

In Carbohydrate Revolution: new findings for maximum sports performance we examine the very latest research into low-glycogen training, and suggest ways in which athletes can put these findings to work in their own training routines.

We tell you how to train in a glycogen-depleted state, what the implications are for strength training, overtraining and concurrent training environments.

It is powerful stuff -- and not for the fainthearted...

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